eScan Terminology


A Remote Control Software used to allow remote access or control of computer systems. It can be used to turn a user’s machine into a mass mailer or soldier for DDoS attack or a host for malicious or inappropriate content; it is stealing cycles and other resources; can slow machines down; may be associated with loss of data; and may cause personal information to be shared widely or allow it to be stolen. It may allow remote technical support or troubleshooting; can provide users remote access to own data or resources. <br><br> *<a href="" target=_blank>Anti-Spyware Coalition Definitions and Supporting Documents</a>

Backup authority*

A trusted application running on a secure computer that provides secondary storage for the session keys of its clients. The backup authority stores session keys as key BLOBs that are encrypted with the backup authority`s public key. <br><br> *<a href="" target=_blank></a>

Base content type

A type of data contained in a PKCS #7 message. Base content types only contain data, no cryptographic enhancements such as hashes or signatures. Currently, the only base content type is the Data content type.

Base cryptographic functions

The lowest level of functions in the CryptoAPI architecture. They are used by applications and other high-level CryptoAPI functions to provide access to CSP-provided cryptographic algorithms, secure key generation, and secure storage of secrets.

Basic Encoding Rules

(BER) The set of rules used to encode ASN.1 defined data into a stream of bits (zeros or ones) for external storage or transmission. A single ASN.1 object may have several equivalent BER encodes. BER is defined in CCITT Recommendation X.209. This is one of the two encoding methods currently used by CryptoAPI.

Big endian

A memory or data format in which the most significant byte is stored at the lower address or arrives first.


A generic sequence of bits that contain one or more fixed-length header structures plus context specific data.

Block cipher

A cipher algorithm that encrypts data in discrete units (called blocks), rather than as a continuous stream of bits. The most common block size is 64 bits. For example, DES is a block cipher.

Bulk encryption key

A session key derived from a master key. Bulk encryption keys are used in Schannel (A security package that provides authentication between clients and servers) encryption.

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