eScan Terminology

Hacker Tool*

A security analysis software that is used by a computer user to analyze or circumvent security protections and are frequently used nefariously. Its presence may violate corporate policies or family understandings and can be used for security research and other legitimate security purposes.

*Anti-Spyware Coalition Definitions and Supporting Documents

Handle *

A token used to identify or access an object, such as the handle to a cryptographic provider, certificate store, message, or key pair.



A fixed-size result obtained by applying a mathematical function (the hashing algorithm) to an arbitrary amount of data. (Also known as "message digest.")

Hash object

An object used to hash messages or session keys. The hash object is created by a call to CryptCreateHash. The definition of the object is defined by the CSP specified in the call.

Hash-Based Message Authentication Code

(HMAC) A symmetric keyed hashing algorithm implemented by Microsoft cryptographic service providers. An HMAC is used to verify the integrity of data to help ensure it has not been modified while in storage or transit. It can be used with any iterated cryptographic hash algorithm, such as MD5 or SHA-1. CryptoAPI references this algorithm by its algorithm identifier (CALG_HMAC) and class (ALG_CLASS_HASH).

Hashing algorithm

An algorithm used to produce a hash value of some piece of data, such as a message or session key. Typical hashing algorithms include MD2, MD4, MD5, and SHA-1.

Hashing functions

A set of functions used to create and destroy hash objects, get or set the parameters of a hash object, and hash data and session keys.


Data type which serves as a handle to a Certificate Services backup context. Its role is to maintain context state between the server and the backup APIs when a backup is being performed.


A system modifying software that is used to modify system and change user experience: e.g. home page, search page, default media player, or lower level system functions. Without appropriate consent, system modification is hijacking, it can compromise system integrity and security, can drive user to spoofed web sites in order to steal their ID and may be used for desirable customization.

*Anti-Spyware Coalition Definitions and Supporting Documents

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